Design For Underground Reservoirs
Documentation : 

Water is a basic need and an important catalyst for accelerating economic development in semiarid areas. Water harvesting is applied in arid and semi-arid regions where rainfall is either not sufficient to sustain domestic water requirements, a good crop and pasture growth or where, due to the erratic nature of precipitation, the risk of crop failure is very high. Water harvesting can significantly increase plant production in drought prone areas by concentrating the rainfall/runoff in parts of the total area.


Makueni County is located in the southern end of Eastern Province. It covers an area of

7440sqkm and is bordered by the districts of Kajiado to the west, Taita Taveta to the south, Kituito the east and Machakos to the north. It is sub divided into nine districts namely; Makueni, Kathonzweni, Kilungu, Mbooni, Kibwezi, Nzaui, Mukaa and Makindu.The County lies within the arid and semi arid zones of the country. It is generally a low-lying

District, rising from about 600m above sea level at Tsavo to about 1,900m above sea level on Kilungu and Mbooni Hills.


The main rivers that drain this sub-catchment are the Athi, Kaiti, Kikuu, Kiboko, Makindu, Mukononi, Kibwezi, Masongaleni, Kambu, Mtito Andei, Kenani and Thavu rivers. Of these the Athi, Kiboko, Kibwezi and Masongaleni are perennial. The perennial rivers are 5-30 km apart.All traverse the county from west to east and drain into the Athi river, which forms the Makueni-Kitui boundary. Each year the county experiences two main rainy seasons. The long rains of March/April and the short rains of November/December. The hill masses generally experience cool temperature and 800mm-1200mm of rainfall per year, while the lower parts are hot and receive between200mm-900mm of rainfall per year. Most parts of the District experience high temperatures of between24-30 degrees Celsius during the day and low temperatures of between 15-20 degrees Celsius at night. During the May-October dry season, extreme heat is experienced in the low-lying parts of the District causing high evapotranspiration, while the high-altitude areas experience cool temperatures.


In Makueni, water is considered to be very scarce. This can be attributed to a high spatial and temporal variability of the river water resources. The ephemeral rivers carry high flows during the rainy seasons and are completely dry during the dry seasons. Moreover, the high cost of drilling wells and boreholes, and pumping constrains the use of the ground water resources in most areas. Hence there is the need for water harvesting techniques and structures that are efficient for storing water and in turn promote sustainable development.

Final Project- Mutua A.pdf9.05 MB